1: Palpatine becoming more powerful during bad times is similar to how many dictators rose to power, and his getting emergency powers is similar to how the president of the
2: there is little talk about weapon or body armor laws in Star Wars, but there are some laws on blasters and body armor, much like real life gun control and body armor laws, as you can read on the Wookiepedia article Black market/Legends.
In the case of the Empire era, the 3 categories of items were "F/Fee", "R/Restricted", and X/Illegal, much like the weapon laws in some countries.
A few examples would be Canada, which are "Non-restricted", "Restricted", and "Prohibited" (airguns that launch projectiles at a speed less than 500 fps and antique firearms aren't included), Argentina, which are "Civil use", "Civil conditional use", and "Prohibited use", United Kingdom, which are "Section 2", "Section 1", and "Section 5" (note: this is not entirely clean-cut. Go to https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLdw-vBe9RRO3mr1VDR8hZnf2rCrc7Wt5E for more details), and so on and so forth.
Plus the European Union (lookup the "European Firearms Directive" for details), Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Austria (though they actually have laxer firearm laws than much of the European Union), have like 4 or 5 classes of weapons, and the top 3 (A, B, and C) do have regulations on them (though some, like "D", or in the case of Austria, "Less-effective weapons", are hardly regulated at all. I'm not so sure if the powers that be are afraid of civilians with things such as 10 gauge double-barrel percussion shotguns, Sharps rifles, a slew of mismatched antique firearms, airguns and so on and so forth because of the low threat level.). There are also a few countries which do regulate body armor.
3: the Empire adopting a policy favoring human culture is similar to the implementation of a Jewish-supremacist policy in real life. As a disclaimer, I am NOT one of those types who blame the entire Jewish people (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkYQwSCzfVRHFrk6NdJzTb-Hmus5_TDEk), nor am I a race nationalist or anything in that matter, it is just the truth, just like in genocides such as the Native-American genocide or the 1st Holocaust (the 2nd one happened to the German people. See https://www.youtube.com/user/Rys2sense/search?query=HellStorm, http://justice4germans.com/about/) where victims of an attack were forced to doing the things their opperssor's way.
I, however, can understand why someone would make that assumption. Unfortunately, some people who talk about this type of stuff are race nationalists and I've seen very few people who, say, wants to secure the future of Caucasians and aren't white nationalists (I want to secure the future for all).
4: the Empire's use of fear is similar to reason #3 in an article called "5 Reasons Globalism Will Fail", coercion and violence might not be sustainable in the long run, especially when people are gaining courage to fight back. I'm willing to bet that the powers that be created or at least are looking into more effective and direct mind control techniques, though I'm not so sure if they're quite ready to have enough control the minds of the world's population to keep safe (do your own research).
5: this is actually related to 3, but, the case of people wanting peace, order, and safety can be seen with modern-day events such as terror attacks where governments use them to their own advantage to pass legislation to increase their own power and do so with less resistance. Just look at the laws passed after events such as 9/11, 2015 Paris attacks, and the attempts to pass laws after the mass shootings of 2012 and afterwards.
6: corporations were given too much freedom. I am still pretty much a capitalist, but I am strongly against corporatism. I recommend watching "Corbett Report with Ryan Dawson Separation of Business and State" and reading the book that it talks about.
7: the Republic going into serious debt and many people getting into economic and financial trouble is similar to how big international financial institutions such as the International Monetary Fund and World Bank is ripping off places like Africa to keep them poor (watch Neocolonialism in Africa) and Europe getting into financial trouble in the late 2000's and early 2010's (watch Euro Crisis is Just Beginning, Global Collapse is Coming), the world financial trouble in 2008, and the debt taken on by countries around the world to other countries and financial institutions.
9: last, but not least, both sides of the conflict are controlled by the same people, as can be seen in politics (https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLkYQwSCzfVRFz6YKK4XwVJzghptBGjJB-) and fianance (I suggest looking into how big banks do deals with both sides of a war).
Not to mention how much companies profited off of the war in a similar matter to the military-industrial complex profiting off of wars over the past few decades.
Interestingly enough, as explained on https://www.youtube.com/user/LearnLiberty/search?query=Star+Wars and http://starwars.wikia.com/wiki/Palpatine#Political.2C_historical.2C_and_mythological_allegory, Star Wars had many real-life inspirations.
I also recommend watching "5 Ways Star Wars is Surprisingly Like China".
But, as the war dragged on, the Jedi were desperate for more active warriors, and gave those facing punishment an extra chance. Perhaps Barriss had behaved perfectly while in prison, and, after a lengthy approval process, including permission from a jude, counseling, interviews, interviews of prison employees about her, and so on and so forth, while on parole, was allowed to rejoin the Jedi and be able to possess 1 operational weapon when on missions. However, Barriss wasn't allowed to possess any weapons when off duty, and must agree to being supervised at all times. The permits allowing her to be out of prison may be revoked at any time with or without specific reason, and will be revoked he she was ever caught misbehaving again.
Remember, since all of this happened on 20 BBY, and Order 66 happened just the year after, we would have to assume that Barriss was in prison for only a few months at the most, so her behavior must've acted outstandingly good and 110% squeaky sterile to not only get out early, but also, go into battle with a lethal weapon.
This is somewhat relatable to real-life. In many countries, military, law enforcement, and security personnel are often restricted from bringing weapons home, of course, varying from country-to-country. This is somewhat relatable to Barriss, after being convicted of committing a serious crime, being restricted from possessing weapons.
A more closely relatable situation is seen in the United States in real life when it comes to convicted felons and firearms. In the U.S., under federal law, it is prohibited for a felon to buy a firearm (not including airguns or even antiques). However, some states do have a process for a felon to be legally allowed to purchase firearms again (from what I've read, believe it or not, this is allowed under state's rights), but it is quite lengthy from what I've heard (in Texas, for instance, the process takes like 5 years. Lookup "Texas Penal Code 46.04" for details). I also recommend watching Gun Gripes Episode 70: Convicted Felons and Guns for details.
I've seen people who believe that the Seventh Sister may be Barriss Offee, and while she probably isn't, if she is, she may be Barriss with facial surgery, tattoos removed and changed voice. And I've seen someone make another claim, which can be read here: https://www.reddit.com/r/FanTheories/comments/44olur/how_did_barriss_offee_stay_in_the_jedi_order/.
When it comes to being generals, perhaps they want to stop violence and chaos as soon as they could.
When it comes to being armed, remember that the Jedi were not only peace keepers, but also has, for some time, acted as law enforcement. When someone, like a law enforcement agent, security agent, most conceal carriers, or other moral, ethical, rational and sober minded individuals carry weapons, they often do so for the defense of themselves and, often, others. They may be reluctant to use the weapon, but it is either they stop a threat or the threat will keep harming innocents.
I know that it may not be easy to come up with a less-than-lethal irritant/inflammatory spray that would always be effective and reasonably safe, considering how many species there are in the galaxy. But the Jedi don't use tasers. I guess that using a weapon other than a lightsaber breaks Jedi tradition, and that carrying other weapons aren't fancy enough becuase they look too utilitarian. But, if the Jedi want to save lives, wouldn't they carry tools that allow them more options than lethal force or what the force can provide alone?
And lastly, I do see why the Jedi forbid members from having relationships, as explained in the video. What is mentioned in the bus situation is actually a real life ethics theory, often called the "Trolley problem", which has a few variations. I've came up with actual examples that are applicable in the Star Wars universe.
While looking for kidnapping victims, Anakin is checking a switch station, when a train is barreling down the tracks, and cannot stop in time. There are only 2 tracks that it could be diverted to: one has multiple individuals tied to it, and the other has Anakin's true love, Padme, tied to it. By Jedi rules, since the needs of the many outweigh the needs of the few, Anakin should direct the train onto the track Padme is on and hit her. However, while powerful, Anakin is a rather emotional individual, and might not make the right decision (exactly why the Jedi aren't supposed to have relationships).
Another situation can be seen in which everything is the same, except Ahsoka is in Padme's place. Anakin may let the train hit the multiple tied kidnapping victims, and try to justify it by reasoning that by saving Ahsoka, she may save more lives in the long term and help bring the greater good. But, if you were an individual tied to the tracks, or loved 1 or more of them, how would you start to feel about that?
Now, some can say that the Jedi should have "May-issue" exemptions to allow emotionally mature members to have relationships. But, how are you going to deal with the less-mature members who get mad becuase they couldn't get the permit?
Though it would've been a good idea to at least teach members of the Jedi order how to deal with emotional attachment, there may be at east someone who is still not mature enough to deal with it.
(This last idea was taken from "Star Wars Lore Episode XIX - Why Jedi can't marry".)